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  • 人大执法检查制度的历史流变及其完善
  • 发布时间:2018-11-08 15:15 | 作者:满意论文网 | 来源:网络整理 | 浏览:
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    【Abstract】 As the highest organ of State power of the People\'s Republic of China, the NPC is granted in the Constitution two main functions and powers, namely, formulation of laws and supervision of other governing organs, the implementation of which requires the existence of corresponding laws so that it can be systematized, standardized and routinized. Unlike the legislative power system, which is relatively mature, the supervision power system has been progressing along the road of exploration, and reaching perfection gradually, as can be seen from the formation of the law enforcement examination system, an innovated means of supervision which has been summarized by the People\'s Congress at all levels over the past two decades plus, and played a more and more important and irreplaceable role at the present time when the NPC\'s supervision powers are increasingly strengthening.Starting off with the concept of law enforcement examination and its features which are prone to trigger fuzzy understandings in practice, the *** offers a detailed analysis of the nature of law enforcement examination, and defines it clearly as supervision in essence. The *** proceeds to expound the enlightenments drawn both from Western power separation theory and the representative system ~ two sources of law enforcement examination theory ~ and Marxist supervision theory, as well as the CPC\'s explorations of the NPC\'s supervision system, and make comprehensive comparisons among the newly formulated means of law enforcement examination and other forms of supervision from the state organs, the judicial organs, the CPC and people\'s groups, the press, and the masses. The second part of the ***, which presents a careful analysis of the legalization process of the present NPC\'s law enforcement examination system developing from its embryonic stage and systematization, argues that law enforcement, as an independent way of implementing the NPC\'s supervision powers, is not only a necessity in history but also an inevitable outcome of the development of the NPC\'s supervision system. Then the *** expounds the problems and reasons concerning the subjects, objects, processes, effects, and others of the law enforcement examination system, and, by adopting the perspective of a system operator and borrowing some successful experience drawn from practice, analyses three major aspects of the system of the law enforcement examination process, the guarantee system of the law enforcement examination, and the running mechanism of the NPC itself, as well as offers some constructive ideas and suggestions for the perfection of the NPC\'s law enforcement examination system.The whole *** focuses on the historical change of the NPC\'s law enforcement examination system and its perfection, through which the readers are supposed to not only have a clear picture of the history and achievements of the NPC\'s law enforcement examination system which has developed from the exploratory behavior of "inspection" to its approval by supervision laws and standardization, but also realize that the perfection of systems needs more serious and meticulous efforts so that it can play its role as required.
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    【中文摘要】人民代表大会是国家的权力机关,立法和监视是宪法赋予人大的两项重要职权。这两项权力的行使都需要有相应的法律使之制度化、规范化、程序化。与较为成熟的立法权制度相比,监视权制度一直都在探索中前进,并逐渐地走向完善。其中的执法检查制度就是二十多年来,各级人大在实践中摸索、总结出来的一项创新型的监视方式,在人大监视权日益加强的今天,它发挥出了越来越重要的、不可替换的作用。本文从实践当中比较轻易产生模糊熟悉的执法检查的概念、特征进手,对执法检查的属性进行了细致的分析,对执法检查属于监视权的实质给与了明确的界定。然后,对执法检查的理论的产生源头西方分权理论与代议制度的启示,到马克思主义监视学说的启示,再到中国***人对人大监视制度的探索进行阐述,并对执法检查这一新生的监视形式与国家机关的监视、司法机关的监视、党和人民团体的监视、新闻***的监视、人民群众的监视等监视形式进行了全方位的比较。第二部分是从人大执法检查制度的萌芽,到执法检查的规范化,再到今天执法检查制度的法制化过程进行了认真细致的梳理和分析,论证说明了执法检查作为一种独立的行使人大监视权的方式出现,是历史的需要,也是人大监视制度发展的必然。在这个基础上,文章对执法检查制度中的主体、对象、程序及效果等方面存在的题目和原因进行了深进剖析,最后以制度操纵者的角度,鉴戒实践中的一些成功经验,从执法检查的程序制度、执法检查的保障制度和人大自身运行机制三个大的方面进行分析,对人大执法检查制度的完善,提出了一些建设性的意见和建议。本文的重点是人大执法检查制度的历史流变和制度的完善,通过这两部分的内容,使读者能够清楚地看到人大执法检查制度从“视察”这一探索性的行为起步,到被监视法认同和规范的历史脉络和成就,还能够熟悉到制度的完善还需要做大量严厉、细致的工作,才能使其真正发挥出应有的作用。');
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